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Saturday, July 25, 2020 | History

2 edition of Sleep mechanisms and functions in humans and animals found in the catalog.

Sleep mechanisms and functions in humans and animals

Sleep mechanisms and functions in humans and animals

an evolutionary perspective

  • 29 Want to read
  • 33 Currently reading

Published by Van Nostrand Reinhold (UK) Co. in Wokingham, Berkshire .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Sleep -- Physiological aspects.,
  • Evolution.,
  • Sleep -- Psychological aspects.

  • Edition Notes

    Includes bibliographies and indexes.

    Statementedited by Andrew Mayes.
    SeriesThe comparative psychology of animals and humans, Comparative psychology of animals and humans
    ContributionsMayes, A. R.
    The Physical Object
    Paginationix, 363 p. ;
    Number of Pages363
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL15182515M
    ISBN 100442305400
    LC Control Number83006935

      A recent, extensive study showed that human sleep parameters were unrelated to memory consolidation on all tasks examined, undermining a vast literature on memory consolidation as a major function of sleep (Sleep, , ). So why do animals sleep? It may be in part simply to conserve energy.   The homeostatic mechanisms that allow an animal to control its body temperature, water balance, blood volume and acid/base balance; The Endocrine System. In order to survive, animals must constantly adapt to changes in the environment. The nervous and endocrine systems both work together to bring about this adaptation. In general the nervous.

    In studies of humans and other animals, they have discovered that sleep plays a critical role in immune function, metabolism, memory, learning, and other vital functions. The features in this section explore these discoveries and describe specific ways in which we all benefit from sleep.   Equally telling is the finding that when humans and other animals lose sleep, they proceed to make it up, paying off the ''debt'' by sleeping longer or more intensely.

    First, 'replay' does not require sleep and can occur whenever an animal (or human, based on fMRI) is quietly awake. Therefore, it is not clear that this hypothesized mechanism for consolidation is. Animal sleep studies offer hope for humans. A genetic link for narcolepsy, sleeping with one eye open and fear conditioning are all investigated in animal research. October .


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Sleep mechanisms and functions in humans and animals Download PDF EPUB FB2

Get this from a library. Sleep mechanisms and functions: in humans and animals: an evolutionary perspective. [A R Mayes;]. Get this from a library. Sleep mechanisms and functions in humans and animals: an evolutionary perspective.

[Andrew Mayes;]. The neuroscience of sleep is the study of the neuroscientific and physiological basis of the nature of sleep and its functions. Traditionally, sleep has been studied as part of psychology and medicine.

The study of sleep from a neuroscience perspective grew to prominence with advances in technology and proliferation of neuroscience research from the second half of the twentieth century. Humans have been fascinated by sleep for millennia. After almost a century of scientific interrogation, significant progress has been made in understanding the neuronal regulation and functions Cited by: This book examines the purpose of sleep in mammals, particularly in humans.

The author's approach takes a broad biological perspective, clearing away many misconceptions in order to derive a number of well-founded hypotheses about a variety of aspects of sleep. Technicalities are kept to a minimum and an effort has been made to make the book understandable to a wide readership, including.

The REM sleep cycle length is 90 minutes in humans, and the duration of each REM sleep episode after the first is approximately 30 minutes. While EEG staging of REM sleep in humans usually shows a fairly abrupt transition from NREM to REM sleep, recording of neuronal activity in animals presents quite a different picture.

nearly all animals and the enormous variation in sleep time across species are best explained as adaptations to ecologic and energy demands. • Sleep is not a maladaptive state that needs to be explained by undiscovered functions (which nevertheless undoubtedly exist).

Rather, the major function of sleep is to increase behavioral efficiency. To understand sleep deprivation, it is necessary to first measure actual sleep duration. This can be accomplished in several ways. One simple method is to have the patient keep a sleep diary (), though this method involves some level of subjective interpretation and recall, which may be impaired if the patient is sleep aphy provides a more objective measurement by using an.

INTRODUCTION. Sleep loss and disorders of sleep/wake function are among the most common health problems reported in the United States. The estimated prevalence of syndromes of sleep-wake disorders in the US is about 50 to 70 million [], and those who suffer from chronic sleep disorders have impaired daily functioning, compromised health status, and diminished quality of life [].

Introduction. Sleep is a universal behavior occupying a significant fraction of the hour day,1,2 but its regulation and function(s) are far from being understood.3–5 There is an extensive amount of data and many theories, which suggest that sleep plays an active role in processes such as synaptic plasticity and memory functions,6–8 emotional regulation,9–11 metabolic functions and.

Sleep timing depends greatly on hormonal signals from the circadian clock, or Process C, a complex neurochemical system which uses signals from an organism's environment to recreate an internal day–night rhythm.

Process C counteracts the homeostatic drive for sleep during the day (in diurnal animals) and augments it at night. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a brain area directly above.

Sleep is a complex physiological process that is regulated globally, regionally, and locally by both cellular and molecular mechanisms. It occurs to some extent in all animals, although sleep expression in lower animals may be co-extensive with rest.

Sleep regulation plays an intrinsic part in many behavioral and physiological functions. Giraffes can go without sleep for weeks, while brown bats sleep for nearly the entire day. The golden dormouse carefully balances itself on the branch of a tree to sleep, and any quiver of the twig wakes it up the miniscule tree shrew to the most physically imposing of mammals, animals have varying sleep patterns and habits.

Sleep provides an opportunity for the body to repair and rejuvenate itself. In recent years, these ideas have gained support from empirical evidence collected in human and animal studies. The most striking of these is that animals deprived entirely of sleep lose all immune function and die in just a.

Sleep - Sleep - Functional theories: Functional theories stress the recuperative and adaptive value of sleep. Sleep arises most unequivocally in animals that maintain a constant body temperature and that can be active at a wide range of environmental temperatures.

In such forms, increased metabolic requirements may find partial compensation in periodic decreases in body temperature and. No current hypothesis can explain why animals need to sleep.

Yet, sleep is universal, tightly regulated, and cannot be deprived without deleterious consequences. This suggests that searching for a core function of sleep, particularly at the cellular level, is still a worthwhile exercise.

Possible mechanisms of sleep-wake cycle • Wakefulness: Excitatory effects of RAS and thalamus • Stimultion of RAS reinforced by the positive feedback from cortex and peripheral nervous system • RAS gets “tired” during the day.

• Sleep: Diminished RAS activity allows sleep centers to inhibit RAS - - - - and drowsiness begin. There are in fact several lines of evidence suggesting such functions for NREM sleep: (1) increases in such sleep, in both humans and laboratory animals, observed after physical exercise; (2) the concentration of such sleep in the early portion of the sleep period (i.e., immediately after wakeful states of activity) in humans; and (3) the.

Sleep Initiation 1 The Neural Mechanism for Sleep Initiation in the Mammalian Brain Sleep is a marvelous, complex, and mysterious phenomenon, or at least it is to many people. Although acronyms like REM and NREM (Non-REM) are recognizable to many educated citizens, a true understanding and implications of such terms are often non-existent.

Scientists and philosophers have long wondered why people sleep and how it affects the brain. Sleep is important for storing memories. It also has a restorative function. Lack of sleep impairs reasoning, problem-solving, and attention to detail, among other effects.

However, the mechanisms behind these sleep benefits have been unknown. And yet most animals seem to sleep in some form. It may be that sleep offers the benefit of conserving energy while focusing on repair of the body, in order to allow an animal to utilize maximum.The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against function properly, an immune system must detect a wide variety of agents, known as pathogens, from viruses to parasitic worms, and distinguish them from the organism's own healthy many species, there are two major subsystems of the immune.Humans and animals have been extensively studied in the field of sleep research.

Studies of sleeping animals have increased our knowledge of the basic mechanisms of sleep. Research with animal models has led to the understanding of many sleep disorders and has provided new insights that can enable us to understand human sleep and to develop.